iPhone suddenly stopped working? Apple may fix it for free

Apple has kicked off a repair program for some iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus handsets that handsets.

If your iPhone 6s or iPhone 6s Plus is stubbornly refusing to power up, the problem may be down to a component failure, and could be eligible for a free repair.

The affected iPhones were manufactured between October 2018 to August 2019, which makes these are some of the later handsets, not the ones manufactured during its launch in September 2015.

Owners who have already paid for a repair may be eligible for a refund.

To find out if your handset is affected, enter the serial number (here's how to find your serial number) into Apple's serial number checker.

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No More Mixed Messages About HTTPS

Today we’re announcing that Chrome will gradually start ensuring that https:// pages can only load secure https:// subresources. In a series of steps outlined below, we’ll start blocking mixed content (insecure http:// subresources on https:// pages) by default. This change will improve user privacy and security on the web, and present a clearer browser security UX to users.

In the past several years, the web has made great progress in transitioning to HTTPS: Chrome users now spend over 90% of their browsing time on HTTPS on all major platforms. We’re now turning our attention to making sure that HTTPS configurations across the web are secure and up-to-date.

HTTPS pages commonly suffer from a problem called mixed content, where subresources on the page are loaded insecurely over http://. Browsers block many types of mixed content by default, like scripts and iframes, but images, audio, and video are still allowed to load, which threatens users’ privacy and security. For example, an attacker could tamper with a mixed image of a stock chart to mislead investors, or inject a tracking cookie into a mixed resource load. Loading mixed content also leads to a confusing browser security UX, where the page is presented as neither secure nor insecure but somewhere in between.

In a series of steps starting in Chrome 79, Chrome will gradually move to blocking all mixed content by default. To minimize breakage, we will autoupgrade mixed resources to https://, so sites will continue to work if their subresources are already available over https://. Users will be able to enable a setting to opt out of mixed content blocking on particular websites, and below we’ll describe the resources available to developers to help them find and fix mixed content.

Timeline

Instead of blocking all mixed content all at once, we’ll be rolling out this change in a series of steps.

In Chrome 79, releasing to stable channel in December 2019, we’ll introduce a new setting to unblock mixed content on specific sites. This setting will apply to mixed scripts, iframes, and other types of content that Chrome currently blocks by default. Users can toggle this setting by clicking the lock icon on any https:// page and clicking Site Settings. This will replace the shield icon that shows up at the right side of the omnibox for unblocking mixed content in previous versions of desktop Chrome.

In Chrome 80, mixed audio and video resources will be autoupgraded to https://, and Chrome will block them by default if they fail to load over https://. Chrome 80 will be released to early release channels in January 2020. Users can unblock affected audio and video resources with the setting described above.Also in Chrome 80, mixed images will still be allowed to load, but they will cause Chrome to show a “Not Secure” chip in the omnibox. We anticipate that this is a clearer security UI for users and that it will motivate websites to migrate their images to HTTPS. Developers can use the upgrade-insecure-requests or block-all-mixed-content Content Security Policy directives to avoid this warning. Here is the planned treatment:

In Chrome 81, mixed images will be autoupgraded to https://, and Chrome will block them by default if they fail to load over https://. Chrome 81 will be released to early release channels in February 2020.

Resources for developers

Developers should migrate their mixed content to https:// immediately to avoid warnings and breakage. Here are some resources:

Use Content Security Policy and Lighthouse’s mixed content audit to discover and fix mixed content on your site.See this guide for general advice on migrating servers to HTTPS.Check with your CDN, web host, or content management system to see if they have special tools for debugging mixed content. For example, Cloudflare offers a tool to rewrite mixed content to https://, and WordPress plugins are available as well.

Posted by Emily Stark and Carlos Joan Rafael Ibarra Lopez, Chrome security team

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Why Seacom de-peered smaller ISPs

Internet service provider (ISP) Seacom recently had to change its peering policy in order to clean up its network of peers.

So said Byron Clatterbuck, CEO of Seacom, in an exclusive interview with ITWeb on Friday.

Clatterbuck was responding to reports that said Seacom implemented a new peering policy which prevented many South African ISPs from peering directly with the company.

“That got very misconstrued and I think we could have handled that better,” he said. “From the beginning and up until now, we still openly peer with anyone. However, within that peering, there is paid peering and there is peering between peers, which means we are of relatively equal stature. This means you have content that I need, and I have content that you need, then we decide to peer.”

According to Clatterbuck, when Seacom reviewed a lot of the ISPs it had originally set up for open and free peering, it found out they were getting a lot of benefits from Seacom but the company was not getting anything from them.

“So we decided to clean up our network of peers. This is because even if this is peering, there are some costs that are involved in managing those peering connections, especially in regards to the smaller ISPs.


“If you go back in history, when you say a ‘peer’ it means someone who is at my level. So the history is that companies like Internet Solutions, Telkom, MWeb, Seacom, etc, we all have big amounts of data on our network. We say to each other ‘I am not going to buy from you or sell to you, but we are just going to openly peer’.

“That means traffic is openly exchanged across our networks and no money exchanges hands. Now you find out that the smaller ISPs don’t have as much traffic, content or customers. So in such a scenario, we ask them to buy from us but when you have some content, then we can come up with some arrangement as there is free peering as well as paid peering.”



In a prepared statement read to ITWeb on the issue, Clatterbuck said: “After years of successfully opening up the Internet industry for all Africa, Seacom recently took a decision to clean up its network and relook at its open peering policy.

“What we discovered was that over the years, we had openly allowed all sizes and shapes of ISPs across Africa and the region to peer with Seacom at no charge and on a totally open basis. This was great for the industry at that time and also great for a lot of smaller players because Seacom gave them a leg up to get them started in the industry.

“However, as we know, the Internet is a two-way relationship. We open our network to you and you open up your network to us. We both must have something of value, and by peering, we allow this value to flow over our peering connection.

“On closer inspection, we found that despite the many peers we had allowed peering on a free and open basis, there were several customers, for various reasons, that were using Seacom’s network but not providing us with anything in return.

“It was for this reason that we decided we needed to change our policy so that it allows us to de-peer from some of these smaller networks.

“Seacom continues to openly and freely peer with more than 95% of its peers and there has been no change to these relationships whatsoever.

“And at the time, Seacom has maintained the strength of its international Internet network and content with our key paid peers as we actually pay for peering in Europe and in India to support our customers. All these things have costs.

“So as a business that wants to be fair and open, we also need to survive in this ecosystem and continue to grow and provide a better service to our customers. We can assure the Internet industry that it’s always our intention to help develop the best Internet platform in Africa and sometimes to do that, we have to adjust to the market and make decisions that some in the industry may not like.”

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The Story of the IBM Pentium 4 64-bit CPU

Introduction

This time we will talk about one unique Intel processor, which did not appear on the retail market and whose reviews you will not find on the Internet. This processor was produced purely by special order for one well-known manufacturer of computer equipment. Also in the framework of this article I will try to assemble one of the most powerful retro-systems with this processor.

From the title of the article, I think many people understand that we will talk about the Socket 478 Intel processor

Most people are familiar with the Socket 478 that replaced Socket 370 at the end of 2001 (we omit Socket 423 due to its short lifespan of less then a year) and allowed the use of single-core, and then with Hyper Threading technology “pseudo-dual” processors that can perform two tasks in parallel. All production Intel processors within Socket 478 were 32-bit, even a couple of representatives from the Pentium Extreme Edition server segment on the «Gallatin» core. But as always there are exceptions. And this exception, or to be more precise, two exceptions, were two models of Pentium 4 processors with the Prescott core, which had 64-bit instructions (EM64T) at their disposal.

   
Intel Pentium 4 SL7QB 3.2GHz: 64-bits on S478



This pair of processors were commissioned by IBM for its eServer xSeries servers. These processors never hit the retail market and their circulation was not very large, so finding them now is very problematic. It is interesting that the fact that if you want and naturally have the right amount of money, or a large enough order, you can count on a special order of the processor that is needed for the specific needs, with characteristics that will be unique and will not be repeated in standard production products. And it should be noted that not a few such processors have been released, in fact, in the 70’s and early 80’s this was the very purpose of the now ubiquitous ‘sspec.’ Chips with an Sspec (Specification #) were chips that had some specification DIFFERENT from the standard part/datasheet.  A chip WITHOUT a sspec was a standard product.  By the late 1980’s all chips began to receive sspecs as a means of tracking things like revisions, steppings, etc.  I will talk about some a little later.


That’s how the processor looks through the eyes of the CPU-Z utility. In the “Instructions” field after SSE3, the EM64T proudly shows off! Link to popular CPU-Z Validation.



Special processors made for IBM belonged to the Prescott core and were based on E0 stepping with support for 64-bit instructions, which is not typical for Socket 478! The first 64-bit CPUs for “everyone” appeared only with the arrival of the next LGA775 socket, and even then it wasn’t right away; some Pentium 4 models in LGA775 version were 32-bit. I specifically pointed out that the Pentium 4 Socket 478 model with EM64T support belonged to the E0-stepping, although later the more advanced stepping G1 was released, which did not have such innovations. The first model worked at a frequency of 3.2 GHz and had a SPEC code – SL7QB, the second was slightly faster with a frequency of 3.4 GHz and the SPEC code – SL7Q8.

For the rest, these were the usual «Prescott». But the presence of 64-bit instructions made these processors unique, capable of working with 64-bit operating systems and the same applications, allowing them to do what their 32-bit comrades simply could not do.



IBM

Not many companies were able to place their order with Intel, but the «Blue Giant» or IBM could do it, and all in order to defeat HP and Dell in a fierce struggle for the server market share for small and medium-sized businesses. And for one, in order to extend the life of their servers with Socket 478. For these purposes, these two processors were released, capable of executing 64-bit instructions. Another advantage of such processors in conjunction with 64-bit operating systems can be called support for a large amount of RAM, but interestingly, in the age of DDR1 with its small amounts of memory of this standard and chipsets of that time, operating more than four gigabytes of RAM was physically not possible even with 64-bits.

So the whole point of using these processors was precisely in supporting 64-bit operating systems and the same software, behind which IBM saw a promising future, as it once was when changing from 16-bit software to 32-bit back in the days of the i386 . And it should be noted they guessed (correctly), that the sunset is approaching the 32-bit era.

I managed to find a processor running at 3.2 GHz with a SPEC code – SL7QB in Canada, so its journey was not close to me. This processor was part of the IBM eServer xSeries 306 server. This server is a regular single-processor 1U blade server that can be installed in a rack. Inside the server, a single Socket 478 was used to hold the Pentium 4 processor, which had support for up to 4 gigabytes of RAM (and the chipset couldn’t see more RAM), two Gigabit network controllers, a pair of 64-bit / 66 MHz PCI-X expansion slots and the ability to support not very sophisticated RAID arrays from SATA-150 or SCSI drives.



Initially, such IBM servers supported conventional 32-bit Pentium 4 processors with Prescott cores, and then the option of using 64-bit Pentium 4 was added. These processors are listed under the part number 26K8430 for the server models using the IBM spare parts database (FRU) (41x and 45x).



If you look at the motherboard of this server, you can see that it is the simplest solution. In fact, this is dictated by the use of the Intel E7210 chipset, which is a close relative of the desktop Intel 875P, but lacking an AGP port, it uses a pair of PCI-X slots instead.



Windows Server 2003, x64 Edition, or various types of Linux were installed on the IBM eServer xSeries 306 server with a 64-bit Pentium 4. Subsequently, IBM expanded the range of its servers, where it was possible to install SL7QB or SL7Q8, among them were models: x206, x226 and x236.



Thanks to its pricing policy, the cost of new 64-bit servers was very affordable compared to competitors. At the time the updated servers were released (2nd half of 2004), prices for the xSeries 206 model started at $909 for a system with a 3.2 GHz processor and 256 MB of memory, the cost of a more advanced xSeries 306 started at $1,409 for a system with a 3.2 GHz processor and 512 MB of memory.

In the server lineup there are also similar models, but with the letter “m” added to the model name. Do not pay attention to them, as these are completely different machines, which are based on processors in a different – LGA775 version.

Squeeze everything to the last drop.

In assembling such a system, I wanted to squeeze everything out of it possible! and even more. But I ran into a number of problems both hardware and software. My goal was: 8 GB RAM + Windows 10 x64. But here a number of nuances arose.

Let’s start with the hardware problems. 4 GB of RAM are easily supported by all the boards, even with DDR1 you can get 4 GB on four slots with four sticks of one gigabyte each. But it is boring and not interesting. DDR2 opens up much more promising horizons, but here a problem arises, often suitable motherboards offer only 2 memory slots. A simple solution to install 2 strips of 4 GB. But the creator (Intel) introduced its limitations, I will dwell on them a little more in detail.

Often questions arise about installing more than 4 GB of memory on the relatively “recent” Intel chipsets with an external memory controller (Memory Controller Hub, MCH). Here we briefly consider the necessary conditions for this, since it is not always that the maximum possible amount is written in the manual for the board. Perhaps many believe that it is necessary to have an x86 processor with support for 64 bit expansion (EM64T), and a board that, in principle, allows you to install more than 4 GB of memory (supporting a sufficient number of slots and memory densities, this depends not only on the chipset, but also on specific board). And of course, a BIOS that can initialize this memory, correctly configure the mapping of PCI devices, and so on. Not all motherboards have a BIOS capable of doing this, but all because there were no 64bits on Socket 478 and all of the above motherboards from which the choice was made are transitional models, since their chipsets existed in LGA775 as well, and were already familiar with the 64-bit CPU architecture from Intel.

CPU: In fact, for addressing more than 4 GB of memory, a 64-bit x86 processor is generally not required, since starting with Pentium Pro, the ability to expand the physical address (PAE) to 64 GB has been introduced (address lines A32 # – A35 # have been added), but at the same time each task can address no more than 4 GB. However, a processor with 64-bit mode allows you to get the most benefits from RAM over 4 GB, and there will be much less problems with the operating system and drivers than in PAE mode. Note that the width of the address lines for 64-bit processors under LGA775 and even Xeon under LGA771 remained the same (36 bit), that is, they still have a maximum of 64 GB of memory, like Pentium Pro. Isn’t it true that the potential laid down in 1995 is impressive?

Chipset: The chipset must be able to address the address space abroad 4 GB, and this feature is not directly related to the supported DRAM organizations, since memory is understood in the broad sense here – this is all the address space available to the processor, in particular, the memory of PCI devices, BIOS, APIC etc. To do this, you must have at least one additional address line on the chipset. That is, the presence of the HA32 # line will provide addressing up to 8GB, HA33 # up to 16GB, HA34 # up to 32GB, and HA35 # up to 64GB.
And if the server chipsets from Intel (for S603/604/771) have no special problems with addressing, then a study of datasheets for Intel’s desktop chipsets showed that Intel’s first desktop chipset with support for advanced addressing is 955x . Earlier 865, 915, 920, 945 have an older address line HA31 #, that is, physically impossible to install more than 4 GB of RAM in the motherboards on these chipsets.

To summarize, the success of the whole undertaking in the hardware implementation consists of the correct BIOS that “understands” all available RAM + 64-bit Processor + Chipset no older than Intel 955x. But, there is one more nuance, this is the manufacturer of the final motherboard, which, even with a good combination of all circumstances, decided to save money and simply did not route the necessary lines from the chipset, and the lower the cost of the motherboard, the higher the risk. And the boards under consideration are from this lower cost range.

Is there a way out? It seems that there is (but to the end I’m not sure due to the lack of the necessary board) and it lies in Socket 478 motherboards based on the Intel G31 / G41 chipset. There are enough examples of working with 8 GB of RAM on motherboards based on the G31 chipset performed by LGA775, but I haven’t seen Socket 478, but as they say there’s a chance =) I’ll leave this for the near or distant future.

Software problem: As I wrote above, the ultimate task was to launch Windows 10 x64. At the moment, I have not been able to do this, one cannot cope here, but theoretically it is possible. Windows 7 x64 ran with a bang, no problems arose. But already with the installation of Windows 8.1 there were problems, or rather, there was only one problem – the lack of the NX-bit’s processor, and without this «feature» installation of a modern OS is impossible.

The fact is that NX-bit support is very different for x86 in 32-bit mode, x86 in 64-bit mode and PAE mode. For 32-bit mode, the good old PAE and NX bits via CPUID. That is, basically, you just need to change the value returned to EDX after CPUID with EAX = 80000001h (for example, delete the CPUID check and change the value in EDX to the desired one). NX bit functions are not supported in normal 32-bit mode, and you just need to “calm” the OS. There are software PAE patches for the kernel of the OS where everything works, including Windows 8.1 and early builds of Windows 10.

For 64-bit mode, NX bits are already in use and the NX bit value is located in the 64-bit record of page tables and catalogs (PTE and PDE). The difficulty is that even if you manage to trick the OS by deleting its check of NX bits, then the kernel (and all other drivers / programs) will try to switch the NX bit each time instructions are stored in the page table. This will cause the system to crash. I have, so far, found no confirmation of running Windows 10 x64 on the Pentium 4 Socket 478: SL7QB or SL7Q8, possibly due to the specificity of these processors and their low prevalence, but I want to believe that it will still be possible to do it, not for nothing that I tried out dozens of early builds of Windows 10.

We assemble Super Socket 478/x64 PC.

Having such a unique processor at your disposal, it’s absurd not to build a powerful x64-retro system on it. One of the options for using such a system in general can be to build a universal “PC-harvester” that supports all Microsoft operating systems from DOS to Windows 10. And here the most interesting part begins – the selection of components and software. The main component is of course the processor – the heart of the system, it remains to choose a motherboard where it can be installed.

The selection criterion has shifted towards building the fastest system with the fastest interfaces, so there are no AGP slots, only a PCI-Express x16 graphic port, and another PCI-Express x1, and preferably a couple, several PCI, support for DDR2 memory at least, as a variant of DDR3 and the more memory, the better. The list of candidates was as follows:

  • ASUS P4GD1 (Intel 915P/ DDR1 4Гб DDR-400/ PCI-Express x16, 2x PCI-Express x1, 3x PCI)
  • Biostar G31-M4 (Intel G31/ DDR2 4Гб DDR2-800 / PCI-Express x16, 2x PCI)
  • AsRock P4i945GC (Intel 915P/ DDR1 4Гб DDR2 4Гб DDR2-667/ PCI-Express x16, 1x PCI-Express x1, 2x PCI).

ASUS P4GD1



ASUS P4GD1 looks the best in terms of the number of available PCI-Express connectors and configuration flexibility, there is one drawback – this is the first generation DDR memory, all SATA connectors also support only 150 Mb/s.


Biostar G31-M4



Biostar G31-M4 looks like a winner due to the support of 800MHz DDR2 memory, the presence of 4 300Mb/s SATA2 ports, but the board is completely devoid of PCI-Express x1 ports and, most importantly, processors with 95 Watt TDP Max are supported, and that means goodbye to “Prescott” which needs more then 95W.  This minus crosses out all available advantages, one of which is support for all operating systems, the presence of appropriate drivers up to Windows 10 x64!


AsRock P4i945GC



AsRock P4i945GC – the best solution, one additional PCI-Express x1 slot, a pair of PCI, four SATA2 ports. Supported DDR2 memory with a frequency of 667 MHz. After weighing the pros and cons, I settled on the AsRock P4i945GC, also due to the fact that it is much easier to find these days on sale, but finding the ASUS P4GD1 is already a problem.



For such a system, the use of an SSD is a prerequisite and it is better that it is installed in a PCI-Express slot. The memory capacity is 4 GB, as a video card I decided to use the  GeForce GTX 980 Ti with 6GB, a memory capacity larger than that of the system itself. In a couple of free slots, you can install a couple of 3Dfx Voodoo 2 in SLi, or something “cool” in the PCI version, for example the same 3Dfx Voodoo 5500. The final assembly I got was as follows:

  •  Intel Pentium 4, 3.2GHz, Socket 478, «Prescott», SL7QB “64-bit Edition”
  • Thermaltake Big Typhoon
  • AsRock P4i945GC, Intel 945GC + ICH7, Socket 478, PCI-Express , DDR2-667 MHz, SATA-2
  • 4 GB (2x 2GB) DDR2 800MHz
  • GeForce GTX 980 Ti, 6GB, KFA2 8Pack Edition
  • SSD HyperX Predator PCIe 240GB
  • Zalman ZM1000-EBT 1000W PSU


To the start, let’s go!



But first, let’s go into the BIOS of the motherboard.



The photo shows that the processor is correctly recognized in the BIOS, indicating its 64-bit capacity. And this is how a 240 GB HyperX Predator PCIe x4 drive installed in the PCI-Express x1 slot is displayed in the BIOS.



I like this solution more than options with SATA options. cables do not get tangles and the appearance of the system becomes more «serious». Let’s see how using just one, instead of the recommended four lanes, PCI-Express will affect the performance of this SSD.



If this result is considered in relation to modern systems, then it is clearly better than any HDD, but loses to modern SSD. But considering that such numbers are available on Pentium 4 on Socket 478!, you can only rejoice at the old man, the responsiveness of the system turned out at a very high level. But you can still connect it to the PCI-Express x4 slot, though you will have to install either a PCI video card or the video card will work in a PCI-Express x1 slot. Another PCI-Express x4 slot is needed on the motherboard =)


(CPU-Z info – click to enlarge)



I really want to try this monster in practice, but before the test results I will dwell a little on the «not for everyone» processors, this should be interesting.

Not like everyone else.

Before starting the tests, I would like to dwell on some processor models, which, let’s say, appeared due to the «efforts» of other companies, and not at the direct initiative of Intel/AMD. First, look into the distant past.

Let’s start with the a Socket 7 AMD processor, which belongs to the K6-2 line on the «CXT» core. A processor with a non-traditional AMD K6-2 38L3054 model name. This processor operates at a frequency of 337 MHz, which is obtained by multiplying the multiplier 4.5 by the system bus 75 MHz. The solution, to put it mildly, is not standard, if you look at the official AMD datasheet, then for the K6-2 processor line you can see different models,



but the 337 MHz model is missing, because it was commissioned by IBM. This is what a processor made for IBM branded PCs looks like:


AMD K6-2 38L3054 337MHz



As you can see, there is no clock marking on the processor cover. In place of this information there is a marking AMD K6-2 38L3054 (apparently Part number IBM). Below in the photo is a close AMD K6-2 model with a frequency of 333 MHz (3.5 x 95 MHz).


AMD K6-2 333MHz




Xeon X5698



In this case, everything is in place, including information about the frequency of the model.

The following example applies to the LGA1366 socket. The Intel Xeon processor model with the X5698 index, belonging to the «Westemere» microarchitecture, has at its disposal only two cores, while all the other representatives of this server socket have at least four. But then these two cores work at a record clock frequency of 4.4 GHz! and their speed does not decrease under any circumstances, the processor also retained 12 MB of the third-level memory cache. Intel Xeon X5698 was released on special order in limited quantities.

The processor in fact is a 6-core Xeon model, where 4 cores are disabled, but the remaining two are selected at the production stage and are able to operate at that frequency 24/7 at full load. According to one version, these processors were manufactured for the New York Stock Exchange, where at that time the highest core performance was needed, so that multi-billion dollar banking transactions from Wall Street would instantly reach the addressee. The cost of such a processor was set at $ 20,000 apiece. You can find such a processor now, but the cost of a used version will be at the level of the fastest Ryzen 3 R9.


Intel Black Ops



These processors were installed in pairs, resulting in a workstation with four cores operating at 4.4 GHz, and all this at the beginning of 2011. Each processor had a TDP of 130 watts, and water cooling was clearly assumed. It would be nice to find two of these processors and install them in the EVGA SR-2 motherboard.

Continuing the story of Wall Street, it is worth mentioning an even more interesting processor that replaced the Intel Xeon X5698. A special processor model belonging to the «Ivy Bridge» microarchitecture got its own name, immortalized on the lid of the heat distributor, this is not often seen. The name of this processor is Intel “BLACKOPS”. By special order, Intel has released two “BLACKOPS” models. The first worked at a frequency of 4.4 GHz and had at its disposal 4 cores, but at the same time, all 25 MB of the third-level cache was available.

Finding photos in decent quality of this processor is not so easy. But I managed to find a screenshot of the CPU-Z of this processor. It can be seen below.



The x44 multiplier, four cores and a TDP of 250 W, not every VRM motherboard can handle such a processor.

The older model worked at a frequency of 4.6 GHz with six active cores and 25 MB of L3 cache. Both processors have disabled Hyper-Threading Technology. The processors were installed in motherboards with an LGA2011 socket and had a TDP of 250 W, which naturally implied the use of a factory-built VRM. The presence of 25 MB of L3 cache  indicates that these processors were selected from the most successful 10 core die. I could not find information about the cost of processors, but I think it is not far from the cost of the Xeon X5698, in any case it was clearly 4-digit. More information about these processors, and others of Intel’s special ‘Everest’ series can be found in the CPU Shack’s Everest article.


Dual marked Pentium 4 3GHz, or 3.4GHz (one would hope it would also run at 3.2GHz)



At the time of the LGA775 Pentium, Core2 Duo and Quad, Intel made some of its processor models specifically for Dell, IBM, and Apple. Since the Intel Pentium 4 550 model was available for all markets, according to SPEC, the SL8BY and SL8BM variants were intended for Dell. In the first case, the frequency from 3.4 GHz was underestimated to 3.2, in the second to 3.0 GHz. This allowed a single processor to be used in multiple build configurations, simplifying the supply chain and logistics for the builder.


Intel Xeon X5557 SLBFX – Made specifically for Apple for use in the Mac Pro without a heatspreader.



To some extent, the Core 2 Duo E8290 model may be interesting, the model number itself already looks unusual. This 2-core processor operates at a frequency of 2833 MHz and a system bus frequency of 1333 MHz and is based on the Wolfdale core. This processor differs from the usual Intel Core 2 Duo E8300 in the absence of Virtualization technology and Intel Trusted Execution security technology, otherwise they are completely identical. Like its predecessor, the Core 2 Duo E8190 was used in the Apple iMac. This list also includes the Core 2 Quad Q9700 and Core 2 Quad Q9705, which are 167 MHz faster than the well-known Core 2 Quad Q9650, but have only half the level 3 cache, 6 MB instead of 12 for the core 2 Quad Q9650.


i9-9900XE



There are still a lot of other processors that came through OEM channels and which it is practically impossible to meet in retail, the most modern processor of this kind can be considered Intel Core i9-9990XE, which Intel did not even set the selling price, since the circulation obviously does not reach 1000 pieces. (the typical minimum order qty)

After a short digression, it’s time to press the «Power» button and launch the slowest x64 Monster.

Tests

Tests are a good thing, especially when there is something with what to compare. As part of this experiment, I would not want to compare Prescott with Prescott, I just don’t see the point, and it was not for nothing that I installed the GTX 980 Ti. Below I will give the results of those tests that are sharpened by 64 bits, and also try to play modern games.

Testing was conducted in Windows 7 x64 SP1 using the following software:

  • WinRAR x64 v. 5.40
  • WinRAR x32 v. 5.40
  • Cinebench 11.5 x64
  • Cinebench R15
  • Cinebench R20
  • 3DMark 2006 v.1.1.1
  • 3DMark 2011 v.1.0.132.0
  • 3DMark (2013) v.2.9.6631
  • Far Cry
  • Battlefield 4
  • Crysis 3
  • Rise of the Tomb Raider
WinRAR v. 5.40 (32/64-bit version)
Kb/s (more is better)



The percentage difference is not significant, only 2% faster, but it is also in favor of the 64-bit version



It also gives you a reminder that the 64-bit version is better

Cinebench 11.5 (32/64-bit version);
points (more is better)



Everything here is similar to the previous result, around 2%

Cinebench R15
points (more is better)



Here it’s already more interesting, since Cinebench R15 exists only in the 64-bit version, so we can say the increase was 100% compared to the usual «Prescott». Therefore, I decided to add some competitors close in importance.  Interesting that the performance rated Athlon 64 3200+ is identical in performance (for once the PR rating is correct it seems)

Cinebench R20
I will not give graphs, I’ll just say that while the test was “spinning”, I managed to drink coffee twice =) I will give only a screenshot with the final result.  This test really rewards multi-core CPUs, so being limited to one core, and a small cache, really hinders it.



HWBOT x265 Benchmark v.2.2.0 – 1080p
FPS (more is better)
All the difference is visible in the screenshot.



Geekbench 4 v.4.2.3, Single/Multi-Core Score
points (more is better)



We pass now to 3D tests =) Will the giant GeForce GTX 980 Ti be able to help? Between them the difference in age is as much as 11 years. Although during the «honeymoon» month, when they were together in a system of serious quarrels between them, it wasn’t a trifle <img src="https://s.w.org/images/core/emoji/12.0.0-1/svg/1f609.svg" alt="

9 popular online courses that are gone forever… and how you can still find them

Since free online courses first took off back in late 2011, more than 7,000 online courses have been created by over 700 universities worldwide.

But almost a third of these courses are listed as “finished” on Class Central. This means that we don’t know when (or if) these courses will ever be offered again.

Last year, we lost a few hundred of these courses when Coursera shut down their old technology platform.

Some of these courses have come back, or even migrated to a different course platform. But many of the courses have been offline for years and, in many cases, course platforms have removed the description pages for the courses from their websites. It’s like they never existed. A few of these courses have hundreds of reviews on Class Central and were taken by hundreds of thousands of learners.

Luckily, Class Central has an almost complete history of all the courses that have ever been offered. I combed through all the finished courses and made a list of a few popular courses. Where possible, I will recommend an alternative source to get access to the course videos.

1. A Beginner’s Guide to Irrational Behavior with Dan Ariely

If you like to read articles or listen to podcasts about economics, you might know who Dan Ariely is. He is a Professor of Psychology and Behavioral Economics at Duke University, and is often used as the subject matter “expert” in media. He is quite a popular figure — his TED talk has been watched by over seven million people, and he has written multiple New York Times bestsellers.

Back in March 2013, Dan Ariely also launched a hugely popular course on Coursera entitled A Beginner’s Guide to Irrational Behavior. The course page no longer exists on Coursera, but you can find it on Class Central here. It was last offered in March 2014 and has over 500 reviews on Class Central — and almost all of them are 5 star reviews. In fact it is still the highest rated course in psychology on Class Central.

You can read on Quora why the course was taken down.

Where to find the course materials?

Another Quora user has backed up the course materials. You can find week 1 — week 5 here and week 6 here. If you search on YouTube you will also find a number of talks given by Dan Ariely. These are not videos from the course, but there might be some overlap.

2. CS188.1x: Artificial Intelligence

It was disappointing to see this edX course taken down. UC Berkeley’s CS188.1X is one of Class Central’s Top 50 online courses of all time, as well as the #2 highest rated course on our Artificial Intelligence subject page. We even published a 1,100 word in-depth review for this course. Here is what the reviewer (Mal Minhas) had to say:

“It is not simply the best course on AI ever made available online. It is the best course ever made available on any subject.”
According to Mal, CS188.1x was an extremely demanding and difficult course, but it was also rewarding. Here is a GIF of one of Mal’s project submissions.

You should seriously consider reading Mal’s entire review to learn about this amazing course that you will never get to experience.

Where to find the course materials?

Just kidding. The professors of the course have made all the course materials available on their website.

3. Social Psychology

This is another highly popular psychology course. In fact, it’s the #3 rated psychology course on Class Central. Launched in August 2013, Social Psychology has been taken by more than half a million learners worldwide. The course once boasted the single largest course session in the world, with 250k learners enrolled. Even in the heyday of free online courses, this number was pretty impressive.

The instructor of the course, Scott Pious, is Professor of Psychology at the Department of Psychology, Wesleyan University. He is also the founder of the Social Psychology Network (SPN), the world’s largest online community dedicated to social psychology.

The course went down when Coursera shut down their old platform last year.

Where to find the course materials?

An earlier version of the article pointed to a different course uploaded to Academic Torrents. Unfortunately, I haven’t been able to find an alternative source for Social Psychology.

UpdateMohammad Yasser has uploaded Social Psychology videos to Google Drive. Thanks Mohammad Yasser.

4. A Brief History of Humankind

Dr. Yuval Noah Harari is an Israeli historian and a tenured professor in the Department of History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Like Dan Ariely, you might come across him in mainstream publications.

A quick search on Google News shows a number of mentions for Dr. Yuval Noah Harari.He is the author of a number of books, including the highly rated Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind. According to Amazon Author Beta, which ranks authors, Dr. Yuval is the #3 author for history. Wouldn’t it be amazing to be able to take a course directly from such a popular and mainstream figure?

The last time you could do that was in August 2014, when the course was offered on Coursera. His course, A Brief History of Humankind, is another highly-rated course on Class Central that we might never see again. You can check out the syllabus by visiting the course page on Class Central. Lecture 17 is entitled “Lecture 17: The End of Homo Sapiens.”

Where to find the course materials?

You don’t have to break the law to get access to the course materials for this one. Dr, Yuval has uploaded the course on YouTube. here is the link to the playlist.

5. 6. 7. Natural Language Processing (3 courses)

This course might as well be called Defence Against the Dark Arts. For some reason, there have been three iterations of the Natural Language Processing course on Coursera, and none of them are available right now. Here is the list of these three courses.

  1. Natural Language Processing: Dan Jurafsky and Christopher Manning, Stanford University. First taught in March 2012, it was one of the first 20 courses offered on Coursera (now there are more than 2,000).
  2. Natural Language Processing: Michael Collins, Columbia University. Offered in February 2013.
  3. Introduction to Natural Language Processing: Dragomir Radev, University of Michigan. This course is a relatively new one and has been offered a few times since it first launched on Coursera in October 2015. The Coursera course page for this course still exists, but it does not have an upcoming course date. I am hopeful that this one will come back online eventually.

Where to find the course materials?

Each of these courses can be found in two places: YouTube and Academic Torrents. The advantage of Academic Torrents is that you can also download the supplementary course materials, like transcripts, PDFs, or PPTs.

  1. Natural Language Processing: Dan Jurafsky and Christopher Manning, Stanford University. YouTube | Academic Torrents
  2. Natural Language Processing: Michael Collins, Columbia University. YouTube | Academic Torrents
  3. Introduction to Natural Language Processing: Dragomir Radev, University of Michigan. YouTube | Academic Torrents

8. A History of the World since 1300 / Global History Lab

This Princeton University course has an interesting history (hah!). It been offered on three different platforms. First it was offered on Coursera in September 2012 under the name A History of the World since 1300. In September 2014 it moved to NovoEd, and it was called Global History Lab. Finally, it showed up on edX in September 2016. Maybe Professor Adelman likes to offer this course every two years. The materials might have changed partially or completely between these iterations of the course.

Where to find the course materials?

Unfortunately, I could not find the course materials. If you can find it, leave a comment below. If you still have access to the edX iteration of the course, maybe you can create a playlist of the videos. EdX hosts all their videos on YouTube in unlisted mode. You can’t search for them, but if you have access to them then you can create a playlist and let us know in the comments below :)

9. Startup Engineering

Startup Engineering is a Stanford course that “Bridges the gap between academic computer science and production software engineering.”

It was offered once on Coursera, back in June 2013. The course is taught by Balaji S. Srinivasan; he was CTO and co-founder of Counsyl, a genomics startup that began in a Stanford dorm room and now tests ~4% of all U.S. births. Early this year he was also considered by the Trump administration to lead the FDA (yes, Balaji hates the FDA). Currently, he is a board member at VC firm A16Z and a CEO/co-founder at 21.co.

The course had another instructor, Dr. Vijay Pande, a professor at Stanford, but it looks like all the videos in the course feature Balaji.

Where to find the course materials?

You can find all the videos of the course in this playlist on YouTube.

I’m sure I missed a lot of courses. Do let me know in the comments if your favorite course has disappeared from the online course platforms.

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